The complex flavours of IPA Beer are the result of a carefully controlled brewing process that balances the hops and alcohol content. The variety of hops used in the bittering process and the number of hops additions results in a wide variety of flavours and notes. Special malts such as chocolate, black, caramel, and crystal malts produce variations in the body and aroma of the resulting pale ale. The grains used are usually subjected to mashing at moderate temperatures in order to release their complex sugars. Multiple hops additions lend character and layer the IPA Beer flavour
while the addition of alcohol determines its dryness. The balance between malt and hops is usually achieved by the studious regulation of temperature during the storage process. Yeast cells are added for fermentation at approximately 16°C or 60°F while the specific gravity of the resultant brew is measured periodically to test the refinement of the IPA Beer.